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Touriga-Nacional
 

Origin
The genetic heterogeneity of all the quality characteristics studied is larger, as with the yield in clones from Dão, although this difference in variability is not very relevant. Indeed, probable alcohol degree, total acidity and pH of the must have shown greater variability in this region. Other characteristics such as total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hue and intensity, in which genetic variability is more pronounced, the genetic heterogeneity is more pronounced in the Dao. The same happens when it is analyzed the genetic variability of the weight and volume of the grapes.
The hypothesis comes from Touriga of the region of Dão, get reinforced with the analysis of genetic variability made on the quantitative and qualitative features mentioned above. The Dão has always, in all characteristics evaluated, the greater variability Douro, although the difference is not very marked, possibly due to the reasons already given the proximity between the two regions.
Gonçalves, Elsa MF, 1996. Genetic variability of the Old Castes Videira, 76p. End of Course Report, ISA, Lisboa.

Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with carmine edge and average density of prostrate hairs.
Young green leaves with copper tones, page with lower average density of prostrate hairs.
Flowers: hermaphroditic
Pâmpano striatum of red, slightly reddish buds.
Leaf adult small, pentagonal, with five lobes, medium green leaf blades, flat and bullous; page with lower average density of prostrate hairs and erect hairs, teeth short and straight; within petiole open in V, lateral sinus opened on the basis of U.
Bunch small, cylinder-conical, medium compact, peduncle of medium length.
Bago slightly flattened, medium and dark-blue, film of thickness, soft flesh.
Sarmento brown.

Behavior
Abrolhos: Early, 2 days after the 'HIV'.
Flowering: Early, along with the 'HIV'.
Painter: Period average, 2 days after 'HIV'.
Maturation: average season, a week after the 'HIV'.
Casta very fertile, but can not be productive (1kg/cepa). The low productivity is due to sensitivity to the conditions environment, as during the fertilization of the flower poor ventilation leads, very easily, desavinho.
Very vigorous, prostrate in size, requiring wired into vineyards than the second wire is close (about 25cm) of the first, to prevent the fall of pâmpanos. During flowering the area of the bunches must remain well ventilated, with the release and should not be raised and dawn, to avoid a sharp issue of net that will "close" to plant.

Vigorous variety with a tendency to make thorn many secondary buds and latent form and so many net that the crown density - sometimes dangerously in the area of the fruit. You agree to rootstocks of low to medium force.
Porte very retombante which advises a system of support with dual wire routing and mobile early and often of vegetation, together with pruning of entries in green parasites.
Allows pruning Short in cord ROYAT (unilateral or bilateral) and the beads should not be too short - at least 3 buds including the crown.
A variety Touriga Nacional is a very demanding on how to be conducted in the absence of some cultural precepts as excessive force and very dense canopy may be subject to intense desavinho, especially if the weather during cold and wet during flowering.
With regard to income and as a result of clonal selection, the Touriga Nacional is now an acceptable productivity - on average, between 5 to 8 ton / ha
While showing good adaptation to the great diversity of soils, the fertile land and fresh in summer it is favorable in view of low quality. Rather, it is sufficiently rugged, supporting a water shortage in summer, except in the thin soil which may have esfoliações intense.
The Touriga Nacional is not particularly sensitive to all the most common diseases and pests. The shape and driving force, however, can affect the susceptibility to diseases and pests.
There is, however, a clear sensitivity to escoriose.
CONTRIBUTION OF Regional Direction of Agriculture of Ribatejo e Oeste (DRARO). Luis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte MELICIAS, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION OF wine

Variety of size retombante, vigorously and with great tendency development of the net. The internode is medium in size and is regular. Displays gavinhas strong and abundant.
The thorn is medium.
Has a high fertility, even in the basal buds. It is very likely to desavinho. The level of production is medium to high, when using selected materials and conduções appropriate, otherwise it is low.
It adapts to any type of pruning. The beam is of medium hardness. The conduct of the hedge is tough.
It is very resistant to downy mildew, powdery mildew, gray mold, leafhopper and traces, but is likely to escoriose. Medium is likely the shortage of magnesium.
It is susceptible to water stress, often losing the leaves in these conditions.
The bunch is small to medium, slightly compact, with the foot very lignified. The Bago is small, tough and difficult film to highlight and has many pips, a herb.
A Average maturity is the earlier.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE CENTER FOR STUDIES OF WINE DAO. REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES OF THE CENTER. Vanda Pedroso.

Potential
Musts likely with levels of alcohol and acidity medium.
Considered the best variety to produce the Port wine red.
Gives excellent wine, full of color, very aromatic, astringent, with intense fruity. They are wines of custody, demanding technology that can make them bebíveis after a few years. Aging of the best Touriga Franca.

It is a variety in terms of consistent quality of wine that causes a little by all domestic and wine-growing regions over the years.
It is capable of producing wines of the highest quality samples, and alcohol, rich in phenolic substances - with fine aromas, complex and often floral (violet).
CONTRIBUTION OF Regional Direction of Agriculture of Ribatejo e Oeste (DRARO). Luis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte MELICIAS, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION OF wine

The must likely have a very high alcohol content and acidity high, very balanced.
Give retinta wine of intense color with violet tones when new. The intense flavor is also a very ripe black fruit, with something wild, wild (blackberries, rosemary, lavender, Carum, was, etc.).. In the mouth it is full, thick, persistent, robust, tannins, very fruity when young. It has high potential for long aging, by then an elegance, an unmistakable aroma and mellow taste. When staged in new oak wood quality, their evolution is more rapid, providing it more complex, but continues to demonstrate where the "feel" of the original caste.
CONTRIBUTION OF THE CENTER FOR STUDIES OF WINE DAO. REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES OF THE CENTER. Vanda Pedroso

Selection
It clones certificates.
Characteristics of clones, obtained under the conditions of the tests of selection.

Touriga Nacional T, clone 17 ISA:
Average income, with high alcohol content and total acidity average. Excellent environmental adaptation. Note
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